The largest Lyapunov exponent of gait in young and elderly individuals: A systematic review


© 2017 Elsevier B.V. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) is an accepted method to quantify gait stability in young and old adults. However, a range of LyE values has been reported in the literature for healthy young and elderly adults in normal walking. Therefore, it has been impractical to use the LyE as a clinical measure of gait stability. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize different methodological approaches of quantifying LyE, as well as to classify LyE values of different body segments and joints in young and elderly individuals during normal walking. The Pubmed, Ovid Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched using keywords related to gait, stability, variability, and LyE. Only English language articles using the Lyapunov exponent to quantify the stability of healthy normal young and old subjects walking on a level surface were considered. 102 papers were included for full-text review and data extraction. Data associated with the walking surface, data recording method, sampling rate, walking speed, body segments and joints, number of strides/steps, variable type, filtering, time-normalizing, state space dimension, time delay, LyE algorithm, and the LyE values were extracted. The disparity in implementation and calculation of the LyE was from, (i) experiment design, (ii) data pre-processing, and (iii) LyE calculation method. For practical implementation of LyE as a measure of gait stability in clinical settings, a standard and universally accepted approach of calculating LyE is required. Therefore, future studies should look for a standard and generalized procedure to apply and calculate LyE.

Gait and Posture